Foot and ankle problems usually fall into the following categories:
- Acquired from improper footwear, physical stress, or small mechanical changes within the foot.
- Arthritic foot problems, which typically involve one or more joint.
- Congenital foot problems, which occur at birth, are generally inherited.
- Infectious foot problems, which are caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal disorders.
- Neoplastic disorders, usually called tumors, which are the result of abnormal growth of tissue and may be benign or malignant.
- Traumatic foot problems, which are associated with foot and ankle injuries.
Swelling of the ankles may be due to many factors, including trauma, infection, tumor, varicose veins, improper function of the lymphatic system, poor circulation, hypertension, and congestive heart failure, to name a few. The foot and ankle surgeon will recommend treatment based on examination and diagnosis of the cause of the swelling.