Foot and ankle problems usually fall into the following categories:
- Acquired from improper footwear, physical stress, or small mechanical changes within the foot.
- Arthritic foot problems, which typically involve one or more joint.
- Congenital foot problems, which occur at birth, are generally inherited.
- Infectious foot problems, which are caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal disorders.
- Neoplastic disorders, usually called tumors, which are the result of abnormal growth of tissue and may be benign or malignant.
- Traumatic foot problems, which are associated with foot and ankle injuries.
Pigeon toes (intoeing) is a condition in which the feet point inward when walking. It is commonly seen in children and may resolve in very early childhood with no treatment or intervention. The child should be examined by a foot and ankle surgeon if the intoeing is causing significant tripping, difficulty with normal activity, pain, difficulty with shoes, or is not resolved in early childhood. There may be structural problems causing the intoeing which require treatment by a foot and ankle surgeon.