Foot and ankle problems usually fall into the following categories:
- Acquired from improper footwear, physical stress, or small mechanical changes within the foot.
- Arthritic foot problems, which typically involve one or more joint.
- Congenital foot problems, which occur at birth, are generally inherited.
- Infectious foot problems, which are caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal disorders.
- Neoplastic disorders, usually called tumors, which are the result of abnormal growth of tissue and may be benign or malignant.
- Traumatic foot problems, which are associated with foot and ankle injuries.
Bursitis is an inflammation of a small fluid-filled sac, called a bursa, located near a joint, bone or tendon. The bursa, which protects the area from friction, can become inflamed from repetitive motion or irritation from shoes. In the foot, the heel and the toes are most often affected.
Symptoms of bursitis include localized redness, swelling and pain. Treatment may include resting the affected area, local ice therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, padding, or corticosteroid injections to help reduce inflammation and relieve pain. If these non-surgical treatments fail to provide adequate pain relief, surgery may be needed.